A consortium's approach to developing an EPA-based community IPPE curriculum

Lena McDowell, Johnathan Hamrick, Julie M. Wickman, James Fetterman, Kay Brooks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are limited data on the use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) within introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs). The objective of this study was to identify supporting EPA tasks community IPPE students should perform at the "Competent with Support" level to prepare them for advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).

METHODS: The Southeastern Pharmacy Experiential Education Consortium utilized a modified Delphi process to incorporate EPAs into community IPPE curricula to mirror the consortium's community APPE curricula. Community IPPE and APPE preceptors (N = 140) were invited to participate in focus groups and two surveys to identify and build consensus on EPA-based activities community IPPE students should perform to prepare them for APPEs. The primary outcome was development of an EPA-based community IPPE curriculum.

RESULTS: Nine preceptors (6.43%) participated in a focus group, 34 preceptors completed survey one (24.29%), and 20 preceptors completed survey two (14.29%). The initial list of 62 tasks for 14 EPAs was tailored to reflect an IPPE student skill set. Survey consensus led to a community IPPE curricula with 12 required EPAs and 54 tasks (40 required and 14 suggested).

CONCLUSIONS: The modified Delphi process provided a mechanism for preceptor collaboration with experiential programs to build consensus on community IPPE curricula redesigned around EPAs and supporting tasks. A unified IPPE curriculum adds value to colleges and schools of pharmacy with shared preceptors by improving continuity of experience, expectations, and evaluation of student learners and allows for targeted regional preceptor development.

Original languageAmerican English
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
StatePublished - Apr 1 2023


  • Curriculum
  • Education
  • Humans
  • Pharmacy
  • Problem-Based Learning
  • Students


  • Medical Education
  • Medicine and Health Sciences
  • Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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