You may delay, but time will not. Beta cells lost are never found again: a case for timely initiation of basal insulin in type 2 diabetes

Susan Renda, Jeffrey Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Since its first use just over a century ago, insulin treatment has evolved dramatically, such that the molecules are physiologic in nature, and treatment can now closely resemble the natural hormone response over 24 hours. Newer, longer-acting basal insulin analogs have provided insulin therapies with improved characteristics and, therefore, ease of use, and can readily be incorporated as part of routine treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but evidence suggests that insulin remains underused in people with T2D. We review the barriers to initiation of basal insulin and the education needed to address these barriers, and we provide practical pointers, supported by evidence, for primary care physicians and advanced practice providers to facilitate timely initiation of basal insulin in the people with T2D who will benefit from such treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalPostgraduate medicine
StateE-pub ahead of print - Feb 19 2024


  • Basal insulin
  • hypoglycemia
  • patient education
  • patient-provider communication
  • titration
  • treatment
  • type 2 diabetes

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